DNA Microarray PPT: Technique and Applications
What is DNA Microarray:
In a typical microarray experiment, an mRNA molecule is hybridized to the DNA template from which it was derived. An array is made up of many different DNA samples. The amount of mRNA coupled to each site on the array represents the individual genes’ expression levels. This number might be in the thousands. All of the information is gathered, and a gene expression profile for the cell is created.
Technique of DNA Microarray:
An array is a systematic grouping of samples in which known and unknown DNA samples are matched using base-pairing principles. Common assay systems, such as microplates or conventional blotting membranes, are used in an array experiment. The sample spots are usually less than 200 microns in diameter and contain thousands of them.
Thousands of marked samples termed as probes (and whose identities are known) are immobilised on a firm platform (a microscope glass slides or silicon chips or nylon membrane). DNA, cDNA, or oligonucleotides can all be used as spots. These are utilised to find complementary binding of unknown sequences, allowing for parallel gene expression and gene discovery study.
Applications of DNA Microarray:
- Gene Discovery: This technology aids in the discovery of novel genes, as well as the understanding of their role and levels of expression under various conditions.
- Disease Diagnosis: this technology aids researchers in learning more about a variety of disorders, including heart disease, mental illness, infectious disease, and cancer research. With the advancement of microarray technology, researchers will be able to further classify cancer kinds based on gene activity patterns in tumor cells.
- Pharmacogenomics uses microarray technology extensively in drug discovery. The study of links between therapeutic responses to medications and the genetic profiles of individuals is known as pharmacogenomics.
- Microarray technology provides a stable platform for studying the effects of toxins on cells and their transmission to offspring.