The earthquake word itself reveals its meaning i.e., the earth shakes that can’t be avoided. It occurs as a result of the discharge of energy, which causes waves to move in all directions. A powerful natural hazard is an earthquake, which is defined as a sudden movement of a portion of the earth caused by the release of gradually accumulated stress. Although earthquakes are less common than other natural disasters, they can cause far more devastation and loss of life than any other single natural hazard and are thus widely recognized as nature’s most destructive force.
Earthquakes are seismic waves that travel from the epicenter to 700 kilometers beneath the Earth’s crust. P-waves (compressional waves), S-waves (propagational waves), and L-waves (long waves) are all generated by earthquakes. From the center of the earthquake, P-waves expanded outward.
The S-wave operates similarly to a wave propagating down a shaking skipping rope. L-waves are caught between the earth’s surface and the crustal layers underneath it, and they progressively propagate outwards from the epicenter over the world.
There are many different types of earthquakes, including tectonic earthquakes, volcanic earthquakes, collapse earthquakes, and explosion earthquakes. The location of the occurrence and the geology of that place determine the type of earthquake. Tectonic earthquakes are the most frequent.
Seismologists investigate earthquakes by inspecting the damage caused by the disturbances and using seismographs. A seismograph is a device that measures the earth’s surface disturbance caused by seismic waves. The words seismometer and seismograph are frequently used interchangeably to refer to the same apparatus. An earthquake’s intensity is determined by its geological consequences as well as the overall damage it has done. Earthquakes are measured using two major scales and are Richter Scale and the Mercalli Scale which are used to determine the magnitude of earthquakes.